Gum Sickness and Smelly Breath (Halitosis)

Gum diseases may be categorized into two broad groups, namely gingivitis and periodontitis.

Gingivitis is an inflammation of the gingivae (gums) in most ages but manifests more often in children and young adults.

Periodontitis is an inflammation with subsequent destruction with the other tooth-supporting structures, namely the alveolar bone, periodontal ligament and cementum and subsequent loss of teeth. This disorder mainly manifests in early middle age with severity increasing inside the elderly.

Gingivitis can or may progress to periodontitis state in the individual.

Gum diseases have been located being just about the most widespread chronic diseases the world over using a prevalence of between 90 and 100 % in older adults over 35 years in developing countries. It’s already been shown to be the reason behind tooth loss in individuals 4 decades and above.

Bad breath is among the major consequences of gum diseases.

A number of the terms which are greatly associated with bad breath and gum diseases are the following:

Dental Plaque- The fundamental requirement of the prevention and treatments for an illness is definitely an comprehension of its causes. The principal cause of gum diseases is bacteria, which form a complicated for the tooth surface referred to as plaque. These bacteria’s include the source of terrible breath.

Dental plaque is bacterial accumulations around the teeth or any other solid oral structures. If it is of sufficient thickness, it appears being a whitish, yellowish layer mainly across the gum margins on the tooth surface. Its presence can be discerned by way of a conventional dye or fluorescent dye (demonstrated by illumination with ultraviolet light), disclosing solution or by scraping your tooth surface over the gum margins.

When plaque is examined underneath the microscope, it reveals many different types of bacteria. Some desquamated oral epithelial cells and white blood cells are often present. The micro-organisms detected vary in accordance with the site where they’re present.
You can find gram positive and gram negative organisms, filamentous and flagellated organisms, spirochetes and even just small quantities of even yeasts, mycoplasma and protozoa.

Clean tooth surfaces after brushing are usually included in a skinny layer of glycoproteins from saliva called pellicle. Pellicle provides for the selective adherence of bacteria for the tooth surface.

During the first few hours, the bacteria proliferate to create colonies. In addition, other organisms will even populate the pellicle from adjacent areas to create a complex accumulation of mixed colonies. The fabric present between the bacteria is termed intermicrobial matrix forming about 25 per cent from the plaque volume. This matrix is especially extra cellular carbohydrate polymers made by the bacteria from dietary sugars; salivary and gingival fluid components; and dying and dead bacteria.

Small quantities of plaque are suitable for gingival or periodontal health. Some people can resist larger quantities of plaque for very long periods without developing destructive periodontitis (inflammation and destruction of the supporting tissues) although they will exhibit gingivitis (inflammation in the gums or gingiva).

Diet And Plaque Formation- Diet may play a significant part in plaque formation by modifying the amount and composition of plaque. More the plaque formation could be, there will be more bad breath.

Fermentable sugars increase plaque formation because they provide additional energy supply for bacterial metabolic process also provide the garbage (substrate) for that manufacture of extra cellular polysaccharides.

Secondary Factors

Although plaque will be the primary cause of gum diseases, several others regarded as secondary factors, local and systemic, predispose towards plaque accumulation or modify the response of gum tissue to plaque. The area factors are:

1) Cavities inside the teeth;

2) Faulty fillings;

3) Food impaction;

4) Poorly designed partial dentures (false teeth);

5) Orthodontic appliances;

6) Misaligned teeth;

7) mouth-breathing

8) Grooves on teeth or roots near gum margins;

9) Reduced salivary flow; and,

10) Smoking tobacco.

The systemic factors which potentially impact the gum tissues are:

1) Systemic diseases, e.g. diabetes mellitus, Down’s syndrome, AIDS, blood disorders while others;

2) Hormonal changes – during puberty, pregnancy, contraceptives intake and menopause;

3) Drug reactions, e.g. immunosuppressive drugs, antihypertensive drugs and antiepileptic drugs; and,

4) Dietary and nutritional factors, e.g. protein deficiency and vitamin C and B deficiency.

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